History

“The history of mankind is a history of war”

A Brief About Halabja's History

This is just placeholder text. Don’t be alarmed, this is just here to fill up space since your finalized copy isn’t ready yet. Once we have your content finalized, we’ll replace this placeholder text with your real content.

Sometimes it’s nice to put in text just to get an idea of how text will fill in a space on your website.

Traditionally our industry has used Lorem Ipsum, which is placeholder text written in Latin. Unfortunately, not everyone is familiar with Lorem Ipsum and that can lead to confusion. I can’t tell you how many times clients have asked me why their website is in another language!

There are other placeholder text alternatives like Hipster Ipsum, Zombie Ipsum, Bacon Ipsum, and many more. While often hilarious, these placeholder passages can also lead to much of the same confusion.

The Geographical Position of Halabja

This is just placeholder text. Don’t be alarmed, this is just here to fill up space since your finalized copy isn’t ready yet. Once we have your content finalized, we’ll replace this placeholder text with your real content.

Sometimes it’s nice to put in text just to get an idea of how text will fill in a space on your website.

Traditionally our industry has used Lorem Ipsum, which is placeholder text written in Latin. Unfortunately, not everyone is familiar with Lorem Ipsum and that can lead to confusion. I can’t tell you how many times clients have asked me why their website is in another language!

There are other placeholder text alternatives like Hipster Ipsum, Zombie Ipsum, Bacon Ipsum, and many more. While often hilarious, these placeholder passages can also lead to much of the same confusion.

The Attack on Halabja

According to the generally accepted account of events, Halabja was attacked with CW, which included mustard agent and sarin, beginning on 16 March 1988. Three days earlier Iran had launched a new offensive in the area and begun to infiltrate the town together with Kurdish Peshmerga. By the night of 15 March, they had all but captured it. However, as Iraqi public employees had been ordered to evacuate Halabja that day, there was widespread anticipation of reprisals by the Iraqi regime. The next morning Iraqi forces shelled the town with conventional munitions and launched sustained air strikes, dropping incendiary ordinance (possibly napalm or phosphorus). In the mid-afternoon chemical warfare agents were used in the northern part and the chemical attacks may have continued into the evening. Iranian soldiers wearing protective clothing and gas masks were seen in the streets of Halabja.Local people took refuge in cellars and other shelters against the bombing but did not appear to anticipate the CW attacks. A joint Netherlands–Belgian team of Médecins sans Frontières visited Halabja on 24–27 March 1988 as the first foreign medical organisation. It noted in its report ‘that people seemed to be killed by surprise during their daily activities (car driving, eating, water collecting, …)’.Narratives recorded by US doctors treating civilian victims from the Halabja area in New York also described how the chemical agents were delivered by planes while the families were still at home.

1980

Start of Iran–Iraq War

The Iran-Iraq War is considered the longest conventional war in modern times. Given the number of associated deaths and injuries (soldiers and civilians), it is also considered one of the bloodiest wars in modern history. The War officially began on September 22, 1980. The invasion consisted of air raids followed by a massive ground invasion. The primary direction of Iraq’s offensive was the southeast region of Iran, the oil rich Province of Khuzestan.

1980

Iraqi offensive and Iranian push back

In September 1980 the Iraqi army carefully advanced along a broad front into Khūzestān, taking Iran by surprise. Iraq’s troops captured the city of Khorramshahr but failed to take the important oil-refining centre of Ābādān. By December 1980 the Iraqi offensive had bogged down about 50–75 miles (80–120 km) inside Iran after meeting unexpectedly strong Iranian resistance. The zeal of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC).

1982

Iranian offensive, stalemate, and the Tanker War

In May 1982 Iranian forces recaptured Khorramshahr. Iraq voluntarily withdrew its forces from all captured Iranian territory soon after and began seeking a peace agreement with Iran.But under the leadership of Ruhollah Khomeini, who saw Saddam as an obstacle to the Islamic Revolution, Iran remained intransigent and continued the war in an effort to overthrow the Iraqi leader. In July Iranian forces invaded Iraq’s Al-Baṣrah province.

1987

Before Halabja Attack

In July 1987 the UN Security Council had unanimously passed Resolution 598, urging Iraq and Iran to accept a cease-fire, withdraw their forces to internationally recognized boundaries, and settle their frontier disputes by negotiations held under UN auspices. Iraq agreed to abide by the terms if Iran reciprocated. Iran, however, demanded amendments condemning Iraq as the aggressor in the war (which would have held them liable for paying war reparations) and calling on all foreign navies to leave the gulf.

1988

Halabja chemical attack

On March 16, 1988, the city of Halabja was subjected to the most heinous crime against humanity, which is the bombing of the city with chemical weapons. Over 5,000 innocent people were martyred as a result of this crime, including women, the elderly, and children and more than 10,000 were injured.What this martyred city was subjected to is a crime that humanity condemns.

2015

Recognition of Kurdish Genocide

On 28 February 2013, the UK’s House of Commons formally recognised the genocide against Iraqi Kurds, coinciding with the 25th Anniversary of the ‘Anfal Campaign’ – a programme designed by the Ba’athi regime to systematically exterminate Kurds from Iraq. The House agreed to encourage governments, the EU and the UN, to formally recognise the genocide, believing that this would enable the Kurdish people to achieve justice, and demonstrate the UK’s support for human rights .

envelopephone-handsetmap-markerclock linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram